The history of design art
The origin of the word “design”
The word design in Russian appeared relatively recently. It came from the Italian language and has a lot of meanings in translation. “Disegno” is a plan, plan, intention, purpose, drawing, sketch, sketch, drawing, pattern, model, template, underlying scheme, composition. For the Internet, an understanding of design is special. Due to the rapid development of modern technologies, the concept of design has acquired a new, broader meaning and now means not only a separate subject, but is a whole direction applicable to all areas of modern human activity. A person engaged in design (designer) must have knowledge in many subject areas and skillfully apply them in practice, projecting an image in the creative process. It can be said with confidence that design is the modern art of artistic design, the development of models of rational construction of the objective environment.
The design originated in the beginning of the 20th century as a result of the spontaneous formation of the visual and functional properties of the surrounding world.
In various cultures, it is customary to call design activity differently:
Polish language uses the expression “wzornictwo przemyslowe”
German uses the term “formgebung”
Russian language tends to the following phrase: “artistic design”
In the history of our country, such designations as “Decorative Art” or “Technical Aesthetics” were also encountered. The perception and diverse use of the term “design” in different countries speaks about the uniqueness of each of the cultures and their particular attitude to this type of art.
In 1959, the term “industrial design” was adopted as the international designation of the word and meaning “Design”.
Design seeks to cover all aspects of the human environment, which is caused by industrial production.
The prerequisites for design art are:
first of all, the natural human desire for beauty, as well as the desire to embody new and more sophisticated images
economic benefit, which is a huge motive for the development of design
A new stage of its development arose during the transition from manual production to machine production. In order to use the products that had just been invented, they needed to be given a certain form that would attract customers with their appearance, which is what modern design is doing successfully. Now there is almost no area of human activity, which would not be influenced by design. Exists:
and much more
Recently, a very common type of design is Web-design. And this is not surprising, since the development of Internet business products is very convenient both for realizing the economic interests of various companies and for realizing the artistic plans of the designer himself. In addition, this is a relatively new direction in design, which increasingly requires the emergence of new specialists, i.e. is “bread” for a huge number of people.
But the history of design begins far before the creation of the Internet.
When exactly did the design appear?
It can be assumed that this happened even in times of cave paintings and cavemen. Indeed, despite the fact that the concept of design arose much later, the origins of its origin lie in the time of our ancestors. This kind of creativity that has just emerged can be attributed to a monogram. Translated from the Greek “monogram” means the same as the “simple line”. Rock paintings are made in a similar style. Naturally, our ancestors, leaving traces on the walls of their caves, did not even suspect that they were engaged in interior design, the design of their home. Later, the monogram began to denote a sign composed of two or more connected letters, usually the initials, which are put on household items to indicate their owner. A monogram is made in a font that mimics the free writing “by hand” or resembles “wood or stone carving” with subsequent modifications, which is usually done with a pen, brush or felt-tip pen, and then processed by a computer. Such a composition rarely consists of letters only. It can be supplemented with a contour of any shape. In the form of monograms are trademarks. In this case, due to the type of font and additional elements, you can express the scope of the trademark. And for the development of monograms can be used not only letters, but words and whole phrases, which are now called slogans.
The emergence of design, which is directly related to modern activities, falls on the period after the Second World War. And most rapidly, he began to develop in Japan. We owe to Japan many principles that have always been the basis of traditional Japanese art, and now have become fundamental in all design art: composition, asymmetry and expediency. Not a few important role was played by Japanese aesthetics and the love of beauty. We must pay tribute to Japanese manufacturers, because their products always meet two main requirements: practicality and beauty. In accordance with the works of Japanese design, the creation of forms must be thought out and complete. Another distinctive feature of Japanese design is the animation of things.
So, as mentioned above, Web-design is one of the most modern types of design art and at the same time tries to meet all the conditions of practical use.
With the development of computer technology, almost all human activity has moved into the 3-dimensional space of virtual reality. All calculations are performed by machines. Communication takes place for the most part also in the computer world. This is not surprising, because modern technologies have already reached the required level that meets the two main requirements of convenience: speed and the lack of the need to move a person to transfer information. But humanity has not lost the love of beauty. But along with the desire to get a practical product, there is another desire – that the product is pleasing to the eye. The most common activity of a modern designer is to create a layout for sites. Or web design in a different way.
Web design is based on the same basic principles as other design varieties:
the principle of functionalism: “what is functional, it is beautiful”
This principle arose and was formulated at the end of the 20th century in the Bauhaus school. Creating a design for the site has set itself the natural goals of replenishing these principles. When creating a site, all issues of its functioning are resolved, and therefore, when developing a site layout, this principle cannot be used.
In addition, a set of graphic elements and their semantic layout of the future page of the site on canvas are very important. From this follows the second principle of design art:
the principle of constructivism, which is not in the purpose of composition, but in the purpose of creating its design
In addition, the site, thought out in a technical sense, must be imbued with a spiritual idea, and only then it will be able to claim to compete with other works of a similar direction.
Web design has various goals:
formation of the user’s positive perception of the object of the advertising product
simplicity and clarity of the site structure
intuitive user interface
convenience of the navigation system
And their achievement allows to realize the economic goal of companies, and the problems of modern culture require their solution. In this regard, the creation of websites has acquired a new meaning. Sometimes designers strike to the depths of their souls with their skill and ability to translate their plans into real life, and the works created by them truly deserve to be referred to the modern art form. Along with exhibitions of interior design, exhibitions of Web-masters began to appear.
New technologies contribute to the simplification of the implementation of images by the Web-artist, but on the other hand they require a considerable amount of knowledge in various sciences and cultures, as well as fairly good skills in computer technology. In general, he must have associative thinking, be intellectually developed and possess elementary technical skills. After all, the design of things is based on the principles of combining convenience, economy and beauty.